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Fitness Theory and Practice. CrossFit's rationale & foundations. Who is fit? What is fitness?

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Old 10-04-2005, 10:26 AM   #1
Neill S. Occhiogrosso
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I'm preparing a five-minute persuasive speech for a class. My topic will be something like "You don't know how to exercise." I may narrow it to a critique of long distance running as a sufficient tool for measuring and developing fitness. Or, I may focus on machines vs. functional movements. However, I need some data to back up my discussion. Does anybody know where I can find:

1) research that shows detrimental effects of long distance running over time?

2) research that compares the benefits of, or rate of injuries caused by machines compared to free weights / functional movements?

3) the original article that tested the speed and vertical leap of all of the olympic athletes, and shows the weightlifters to be best in all?

4) statistics on revenues associated with big, expensive machines vs. simpler equipment?

5) any other good supporting studies or statistics?

Thanks in advance for your help.
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Old 10-04-2005, 01:42 PM   #2
Neal Winkler
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I don't have any of those articles off hand, but try http://www.pubmed.com if you haven't already.
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Old 10-04-2005, 05:52 PM   #3
Kevin Scott
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cbass.com com has some great stuff that will help you with this speech. Also type in tabata v.s. long distance running in google and you'll probably get some good stuff about advantages of sprint type workouts and downsides of lsd running. Crossfit journal should technically count too. Use examples from the journals and cite from them.
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Old 10-05-2005, 05:07 AM   #4
Neal Winkler
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Not that the CrossFit Journal isn't a good source of information (I hope it is as I have a subscription), but if he's looking for scientific studies from peer-reviewed sources, the CFJ won't cut it.
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Old 10-05-2005, 06:31 AM   #5
Mike Yukish
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstra ct&list_uids=15640382

and...

http://www.sportsci.org/jour/0101/cf.htm

Check the reference lists from these two. In particular, hunt down...

Tabata I, Nishimura K, Kouzaki M, Hirai Y, Ogita F, Miyachi M, Yamamoto K (1997). Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 1327-1330
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Old 10-05-2005, 07:10 AM   #6
Kevin Scott
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true but if he needs proof that doing crossfit style routines will produce same effects as aerobic conditioning it will be difficult to find. Tabata's and intermittent cardio are really the only things out their that scietifically have proof behind them. Crossfit style workouts are to knew and the benefits of metabolic training really don't have a huge scientific backing at this point even though all of us here know that it works.
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Old 10-05-2005, 08:15 AM   #7
Dan MacDougald
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Take a look at this website
Coaching Science Abstracts
http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/dept/coachsci/mastable.htm
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Old 10-05-2005, 08:35 AM   #8
Neal Winkler
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Impact of exercise intensity on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism. Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 7, July 1994, Pages 814-818.

ABSTRACT: The impact of two different modes of training on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated in young adults who were subjected to either a 20-week endurance-training (ET) program (eight men and nine women) or a 15-week high-intensity intermittent-training (HIIT) program (five men and five women). The mean estimated total energy cost of the ET program was 120.4 MJ, whereas the corresponding value for the HIIT program was 57.9 MJ. Despite its lower energy cost, the HIIT program induced a more pronounced reduction in subcutaneous adiposity compared with the ET program. When corrected for the energy cost of training, the decrease in the sum of six subcutaneous skinfolds induced by the HIIT program was ninefold greater than by the ET program. Muscle biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis before and after training showed that both training programs increased similarly the level of the citric acid cycle enzymatic marker. On the other hand, the activity of muscle glycolytic enzymes was increased by the HIIT program, whereas a decrease was observed following the ET program. The enhancing effect of training on muscle 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) enzyme activity, a marker of the activity of -oxidation, was significantly greater after the HIIT program. In conclusion, these results reinforce the notion that for a given level of energy expenditure, vigorous exercise favors negative energy and lipid balance to a greater extent than exercise of low to moderate intensity. Moreover, the metabolic adaptations taking place in the skeletal muscle in response to the HIIT program appear to favor the process of lipid oxidation.

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Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Training for the Rehabilitation of Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. The American Journal of Cardiology, Volume 95, Issue 9, 1 May 2005, Pages 1080-1084

ABSTRACT: We found that interval training provides an effective means to improve the cardiovascular fitness and health status of highly functional patients with coronary artery disease. We also revealed that interval training improves anaerobic tolerance to a greater extent than the traditional exercise training model without increasing the risk to the patient. This research supports the implementation of interval training for highly functional patients with coronary artery disease.

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Gaskill SE, Serfass RC, Bacharach DW, Kelly JM (1999). Responses to training in cross-country skiers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 1211-1217

PURPOSE: This study evaluated whether cross-country skiers who did not respond positively to a training program consisting of high volume and low intensity would improve if high-intensity training volume was doubled during a subsequent training year. METHODS: During the first year of the study, cross-country skiers (N = 14) were evaluated for VO2max, VO2threshold, lactate response, max arm power, and competitive results after a standard training program. During the second year, the athletes were divided into a control group (athletes who had responded well to the training) and a treatment group (athletes who had responded poorly to the training). The control group (N = 7) repeated the previous year's training program. The treatment group (N = 7) was given a modified training program which increased high-intensity training time as a percentage of total training from <17%> 35% and decreased low-intensity training volume 22%. RESULTS: The treatment group, using the high-intensity training program, demonstrated significantly improved VO2max, VO2threshold, max arm power, and competitive results (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased volume of high-intensity training may improve competitive results in cross-country skiers who fail to respond to increased volume of low-intensity training.

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Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, Dennis, SC (1997). Training techniques to improve fatigue resistance and enhance endurance performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 325-333

ABSTRACT: Despite their best efforts, sports scientists have found it difficult to persuade elite athletes to experiment with their training regimens. Thus, until recently, exercise physiologists have had limited impact on the training practices of successful athletes, with most of the innovations in the training patterns of the best athletes coming from the empirical observations of top-level coaches. One form of training recognized by sports scientists and used by athletes for several decades in interval/transition training. Such training consists of a number of exercise bouts alternated with short rest intervals of more slowly paced activity and is thought to improve the fatigue resistance of the active muscles by exposing them to sustained, high-intensity exercise at the athlete's maximal steady-state pace. Few scientific studies, however, have examined the effects of transition training on the performances of competitive athletes. This paper identifies the physiological factors associated with successful endurance performance, and summarizes the results of investigations on competitive endurance cyclists which examined the time-course of changes in performance in response to a sustained, high-intensity interval training programme. CONCLUSION: 4 weeks of interval training can improve 40-km time trial performance of competitive cyclists. The cyclists replaced approximately 15% of moderate intensity endurance training with high-intensity intermittent training, completing six interval sessions during the course of the study. Each interval session consisted of six to eight 5-min work bouts at 80% of peak power, separated by 60 s of recovery. The authors found significant improvements in 40-km time trial performance (54.4 3.2 vs 56.4 3.6 min) and time to fatigue at 150% of peak power (72.5 7.6 vs 60.5 9.3 s). (From http://www.sportsci.org/jour/0101/cf.htm)

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Borer KT. Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors. Sports Med. 2005;35(9):779-830.

ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a serious health problem that diminishes quality of life and levies a financial burden on those who fear and experience bone fractures. Physical activity as a way to prevent osteoporosis is based on evidence that it can regulate bone maintenance and stimulate bone formation including the accumulation of mineral, in addition to strengthening muscles, improving balance, and thus reducing the overall risk of falls and fractures. Currently, our understanding of how to use exercise effectively in the prevention of osteoporosis is incomplete. It is uncertain whether exercise will help accumulate more overall peak bone mass during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Also, the consistent effectiveness of exercise to increase bone mass, or at least arrest the loss of bone mass after menopause, is also in question. Within this framework, section 1 introduces mechanical characteristics of bones to assist the reader in understanding their responses to physical activity.Section 2 reviews hormonal, nutritional and mechanical factors necessary for the growth of bones in length, width and mineral content that produce peak bone mass in the course of childhood and adolescence using a large sample of healthy Caucasian girls and female adolescents for reference. Effectiveness of exercise is evaluated throughout using absolute changes in bone with the underlying assumption that useful exercise should produce changes that approximate or exceed the absolute magnitude of bone parameters in a healthy reference population. Physical activity increases growth in width and mineral content of bones in girls and adolescent females, particularly when it is initiated before puberty, carried out in volumes and at intensities seen in athletes, and accompanied by adequate caloric and calcium intakes. Similar increases are seen in young women following the termination of statural growth in response to athletic training, but not to more limited levels of physical activity characteristic of longitudinal training studies. After 9-12 months of regular exercise, young adult women often show very small benefits to bone health, possibly because of large subject attrition rates, inadequate exercise intensity, duration or frequency, or because at this stage of life accumulation of bone mass may be at its natural peak. The important influence of hormones as well as dietary and specific nutrient abundance on bone growth and health are emphasised, and premature bone loss associated with dietary restriction and estradiol withdrawal in exercise-induced amenorrhoea is described.In section 3, the same assessment is applied to the effects of physical activity in postmenopausal women. Studies of postmenopausal women are presented from the perspective of limitations of the capacity of the skeleton to adapt to mechanical stress of exercise due to altered hormonal status and inadequate intake of specific nutrients. After menopause, effectiveness of exercise to increase bone mineral depends heavily on adequate availability of dietary calcium. Relatively infrequent evidence that physical activity prevents bone loss or increases bone mineral after menopause may be a consequence of inadequate calcium availability or low intensity of exercise in training studies. Several studies with postmenopausal women show modest increases in bone mineral toward the norm seen in a healthy population in response to high-intensity training. Physical activities continue to stimulate increases in bone diameter throughout the lifespan. These exercise-stimulated increases in bone diameter diminish the risk of fractures by mechanically counteracting the thinning of bones and increases in bone porosity.Seven principles of bone adaptation to mechanical stress are reviewed in section 4 to suggest how exercise by human subjects could be made more effective. They posit that exercise should: (i) be dynamic, not static; (ii) exceed a threshold intensity; (iii) exceed a threshold strain frequency; (iv) be relatively brief but intermittent; (v) impose an unusual loading pattern on the bones; (vi) be supported by unlimited nutrient energy; and (vii) include adequate calcium and cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) availability.

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Slordahl SA, Wang E, Hoff J, Kemi OJ, Amundsen BH, Helgerud J. Effective training for patients with intermittent claudication. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2005 Sep;39(4):244-9.

ABSTRACT: Objective. Current guidelines for treatment of intermittent claudication (IC) do not include a specific recommendation for the intensity of exercise therapy. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of high versus low intensity exercise for patients with IC, and further to study the effect of such training on blood flow to the legs during exercise. Design. The effect of eight weeks of supervised endurance training was examined in 16 patients with IC. The patients were randomly assigned to training at intensities corresponding to either 60% or 80% of their peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)), respectively. Results. VO(2peak) and time to exhaustion increased significantly (9% and 16%, respectively) more in the high intensity group (p<0.05). Blood flow to the legs did not change after training in any of the groups. Conclusion. High intensity training gave larger improvements in VO(2peak) and time to exhaustion than low intensity training. As blood flow did not change after the exercise program, it is likely that the observed different increase of VO(2peak) was due to changed mitochondrial oxidative capacity and/or skeletal muscle diffusive capacity.

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Krustrup P, Mohr M, Ellingsgaard H, Bangsbo J. Physical demands during an elite female soccer game: importance of training status. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Jul;37(7):1242-8.

PURPOSE: To examine the activity profile and physical loading of elite female soccer players during match play and to study the relationship between training status and physical match performance. METHODS: Time-motion analysis and HR recordings were performed on 14 elite female soccer players during competitive matches. In addition, the players carried out a laboratory treadmill test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. RESULTS: The total distance covered during a game was 10.3 km (range: 9.7-11.3) with high-intensity running (HIR) accounting for 1.31 km (0.71-1.70). HIR was performed 125 times (72-159) for 2.3 s (2.0-2.4) on average. The average and peak HR in a game were 167 beats per minute (bpm) (152-186) and 186 (171-205), respectively, corresponding to 87% (81-93) and 97% (96-100) of HR(max). Maximal pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 49.4 mL.min(-1).kg(-1) (43.4-56.8), and incremental treadmill test (ITT) performance was 4.49 min (3.38-5.17). The Yo-Yo test performance was 1379 m (600-1960). The total distance covered during match play did not correlate with VO2max or ITT performance but correlated with the Yo-Yo test result (r = 0.56, P < 0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between HIR and VO2max (r = 0.81, P < 0.05), ITT (r = 0.82, P < 0.05), and Yo-Yo test performance (r = 0.76, P < 0.05). No relationship was observed between HR(max) during match play and any of the performance measures. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that 1) HIR during games varies markedly between elite female soccer players, 2) all players have high HR throughout a competitive game with periods of near-maximal values, 3) the distance covered by HIR during match play is closely related to the physical capacity, and 4) the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test can be used as an indicator of the physical match performance of elite female players.

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Nourry C, Deruelle F, Guinhouya C, Baquet G, Fabre C, Bart F, Berthoin S, Mucci P. High-intensity intermittent running training improves pulmonary function and alters exercise breathing pattern in children. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jul;94(4):415-23. Epub 2005 Apr 21.

ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of short duration running training on resting and exercise lung function in healthy prepubescent children. One trained group (TrG) (n = 9; three girls and six boys; age = 9.7 +/- 0.9 year) participated in 8 weeks of high-intensity intermittent running training and was compared to a control group (ContG) (n = 9; four girls and five boys; age = 10.3 +/- 0.7 year). Before and after the 8-week period, the children performed pulmonary function tests and an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. After the 8-week period, no change was found in pulmonary function in ContG. Conversely, an increase in forced vital capacity (FVC) (+7 +/- 4% ; P = 0.026), forced expiratory volume in one second (+11 +/- 6% ; P = 0.025), peak expiratory flows (+17 +/- 4% ; P = 0.005), maximal expiratory flows at 50% (+16 +/- 10% ; P = 0.019) and 75% (+15 +/- 8% ; P = 0.006) of FVC were reported in TrG. At peak exercise, TrG displayed higher values of peak oxygen consumption (+15 +/- 4% ; P < 0.001), minute ventilation (+16 +/- 5% ; P = 0.033) and tidal volume (+15 +/- 5% ; P = 0.019) after training. At sub-maximal exercise, ventilatory response to exercise DeltaV(E)/DeltaV(CO(2)) was lower (P = 0.017) in TrG after training, associated with reduced end-tidal partial oxygen pressure (P < 0.05) and higher end-tidal partial carbon dioxide pressure (P = 0.026). Lower deadspace volume relative to tidal volume was found at each stage of exercise in TrG after training (P < 0.05). Eight weeks of high-intensity intermittent running training enhanced resting pulmonary function and led to deeper exercise ventilation reflecting a better effectiveness in prepubescent children.

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Shi X, Horn MK, Osterberg KL, Stofan JR, Zachwieja JJ, Horswill CA, Passe DH, Murray R. Gastrointestinal discomfort during intermittent high-intensity exercise: effect of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Dec;14(6):673-83.

ABSTARCT: This study investigated whether different beverage carbohydrate concentration and osmolality would provoke gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort during intermittent, high-intensity exercise. Thirty-six adult and adolescent athletes were tested on separate days in a double-blind, randomized trial of 6 % and 8 % carbohydrate-electrolytes (CHO-E) beverages during four 12-min quarters (Q) of circuit training that included intermittent sprints, lateral hops, shuttle runs, and vertical jumps. GI discomfort and fatigue surveys were completed before the first Q and immediately after each Q. All ratings of GI discomfort were modest throughout the study. The cumulative index for GI discomfort, however, was greater for the 8 % CHO-E beverage than for the 6 % CHO-E beverage at Q3 and Q4 (P < 0.05). Averaging across all 4 quarters, the 8 % CHO-E treatment produced significantly higher mean ratings of stomach upset and side ache. In conclusion, higher CHO concentration and osmolality in an ingested beverage provokes stomach upset and side ache.

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Roels B, Millet GP, Marcoux CJ, Coste O, Bentley DJ, Candau RB. Effects of hypoxic interval training on cycling performance.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that intermittent hypoxic interval training improves sea level cycling performance more than equivalent training in hypoxia or normoxia. METHODS: Thirty-three well-trained cyclists and triathletes (25.9 +/- 2.7 yr, VO(2max) 66.1 +/- 6.1 mL.min(-1).kg(-1)) were divided into three groups: intermittent hypoxic (IHT, N = 11, P(I)O(2) of 100 mm Hg), intermittent hypoxic interval training (IHIT, N = 11) and normoxia (Nor, N = 11, P(I)O(2) of 160 mm Hg) and completed a 7-wk training program, consisting of two high-intensity (100 or 90% relative peak power output) interval training sessions each week. Each interval training session was performed in a laboratory on the subject's own bicycle, in normoxic or hypoxic conditions for the Nor and the IHT group, respectively. The IHIT group performed warm-up and cool-down plus recovery from each interval in hypoxic conditions. In contrast to IHT, interval exercise bouts were performed in normoxic conditions. RESULTS: Mean power output during a 10-min cycle time trial improved after the first 4 wk of training by 5.2 +/- 3.9, 3.7 +/- 5.9, and 5.0 +/- 3.4% for IHIT, IHT, and Nor, respectively, without significant differences between groups. Moreover, mean power output did not show any significant improvement in the following 3 wk in any group. VO(2max) (L.min(-1)) increased only in IHIT during the training period (8.7 +/- 9.1%; P <0.05).> 0.05) were observed. CONCLUSION: Four weeks of interval training induced an improvement in endurance performance. However, short-term exposure to hypoxia (approximately 114 min.wk(-1)) did not elicit a greater increase in performance or any hematological modifications.

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Baquet G, Guinhouya C, Dupont G, Nourry C, Berthoin S. Effects of a short-term interval training program on physical fitness in prepubertal children. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Nov;18(4):708-13.

ABSTARCT: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 7-week interval-training program on different aspects of physical fitness in children who were 8-11 years old. Forty-six boys and 54 girls (9.7 +/- 0.8 years) were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The 2 groups performed selected tests from the European physical fitness test battery before and after training. Training consisted of 2 specific 30-minute sessions per week of short high-intensity, intermittent-running aerobic exercises at velocities ranging from 100-130% of maximal aerobic speed. After training, the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement in the standing broad jump (9.6%, p < 0.001, F = 12.9) and 20-meter shuttle run (5.4%, p < 0.001, F = 14.4), whereas for the control group, no significant changes were observed. It was concluded that a high-intensity, intermittent-running program improved children's aerobic performance and explosive strength.

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Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Bougault V, Doutreleau S, Charloux A, Lonsdorfer J, Oswald-Mammosser M. Intermittent exercise test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: how do the pulmonary hemodynamics adapt? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Dec;36(12):2032-9.

PURPOSE: Endurance training is an important component of rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In our study, we investigated the pulmonary hemodynamics' adaptation during a high-intensity intermittent exercise in such patients. METHODS: Eight patients underwent a 30-min exercise, alternating a 4-min work set at their first ventilatory threshold with a 1-min exercise set at 90% of their maximal tolerated power output. Pulmonary arterial pressure was measured by means of a right heart catheter. Cardiac output was calculated using the Fick's principle applied to oxygen. RESULTS: VO(2), cardiac output, and ventilation increased during the first minutes of exercise and remained stable thereafter. Heart rate increased significantly and progressively to its maximal value from rest to the end of the test (P < 0.001). After an initial increase, stroke volume decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Pulmonary arterial pressure increased from rest (mean +/- SEM 23.9 +/- 2.1 mm Hg) to the fifth minute of exercise (41.6 +/- 2.8 mm Hg), and decreased significantly thereafter (35.2 +/- 3.3 mm Hg at the 30th minute) (P < 0.001). Total pulmonary vascular resistance decreased from rest to the end of the test (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The high-intensity 1-min bouts of work of our intermittent work exercise are well tolerated without pushing the pulmonary arterial pressure dramatically high in COPD patients.

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Dupont G, Akakpo K, Berthoin S. The effect of in-season, high-intensity interval training in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Aug;18(3):584-9.

ABSTARCT: The effects of in-season, high-intensity interval training on professional male soccer players' running performances were investigated. Twenty-two subjects participated in 2 consecutive training periods of 10 weeks. The first period was considered a control period and was compared with a period where 2 high-intensity interval training exercises were included in the usual training program. Intermittent runs consisted of 12-15 runs lasting 15 seconds at 120% of maximal aerobic speed alternated with 15 seconds of rest. Sprint repetitions consisted of 12-15 all-out 40-m runs alternated with 30 seconds of rest. Results from the high-intensity interval training have shown that maximal aerobic speed was improved (+8.1 +/- 3.1%; p < 0.001) and that the time of the 40-m sprint was decreased (-3.5 +/- 1.5%; p < 0.001), whereas no change in either parameters were observed during the control period. This study shows that improvements in physical qualities can be made during the in-season period.

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Krustrup P, Hellsten Y, Bangsbo J. Intense interval training enhances human skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of dynamic exercise at high but not at low intensities. J Physiol. 2004 Aug 15;559(Pt 1):335-45. Epub 2004 Jul 2.

ABSTRACT: The present study tested the hypothesis that intense interval training enhances human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake (VO2) at the onset of dynamic exercise. We also investigated whether possible training effects were dependent on exercise intensity. Six habitually active males carried out 7 weeks of intermittent-exercise one-legged knee-extensor training at an intensity corresponding to approximately 150% of peak thigh VO2 on three to five occasions per week. After the training period, cardiovascular and metabolic measurements were performed during knee-extensor exercise with the trained leg (TL) and the control leg (CL) for 10 min at intensities of 10 and 30 W, and also for 4 min at 50 W. Femoral venous blood flow was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 75 to 180 s at 30 W ( approximately 75 s: 3.43 +/- 0.20 versus 2.99 +/- 0.18 l min(-1)) and from 40 to 210 s at 50 W ( approximately 75 s: 5.03 +/- 0.41 versus 4.13 +/- 0.33 l min(-1)). Mean arterial pressure was not different between legs. Thus, thigh vascular conductance was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 35 to 270 s at 30 W and from 150 to 240 s at 50 W. Femoral arterial-venous (a-v) O2 difference was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 20 to 70 s at 30 W, but not different between TL and CL at 50 W. Thigh VO2 was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 20 to 110 s at 30 W ( approximately 45 s: 0.38 +/- 0.04 versus 0.30 +/- 0.03 l min(-1)), and from 45 to 240 s at 50 W ( approximately 45 s: 0.64 +/- 0.06 versus 0.44 +/- 0.08 l min(-1)). No differences were observed between TL and CL during exercise at 10 W. The present data demonstrate that intense interval training elevates muscle oxygen uptake, blood flow and vascular conductance in the initial phase of exercise at high, but not at low, intensities.

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Weston M, Helsen W, MacMahon C, Kirkendall D. The impact of specific high-intensity training sessions on football referees' fitness levels. Am J Sports Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;32(1 Suppl):54S-61S.

BACKGROUND: In comparison to the amount of literature that has examined the match demands of football refereeing, there has been little attempt to assess the impact of high-intensity training. PURPOSE: The main goals were to get a better understanding of the long-term effect of specific intermittent training. STUDY DESIGN: The authors examined the cardiovascular strain of specific high-intensity training sessions and also their impact on referees' fitness levels. METHODS: To examine the physical workload during intensive intermittent training sessions, heart rates were recorded and analyzed relative to the referees' maximum heart rate (HR(max)). To assess the referees' fitness levels, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test was used. RESULTS: Both the pitch- and track-training sessions were successful in imposing an appropriate high intensity load on the referees, at 86.4 +/- 2.9% and 88.2 +/- 2.4% HR(max), respectively. Following 16 months of intermittent high-intensity training, referees improved their performance on the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test by 46.5%, to a level that is comparable with professional players. CONCLUSIONS: As match officials are subjected to a high physical load during matches, they should follow structured weekly training plans that have an emphasis on intensive, intermittent training sessions.
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Old 10-05-2005, 08:54 AM   #9
Neal Winkler
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That was for interval training, here are some more articles for olympic lifting ect.

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Tricoli V, Lamas L, Carnevale R, Ugrinowitsch C. Short-term effects on lower-body functional power development: weightlifting vs. vertical jump training programs. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 May;19(2):433-7.

ABSTRACT: Among sport conditioning coaches, there is considerable discussion regarding the efficiency of training methods that improve lower-body power. Heavy resistance training combined with vertical jump (VJ) training is a well-established training method; however, there is a lack of information about its combination with Olympic weightlifting (WL) exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the short-term effects of heavy resistance training combined with either the VJ or WL program. Thirty-two young men were assigned to 3 groups: WL = 12, VJ = 12, and control = 8. These 32 men participated in an 8-week training study. The WL training program consisted of 3 x 6RM high pull, 4 x 4RM power clean, and 4 x 4RM clean and jerk. The VJ training program consisted of 6 x 4 double-leg hurdle hops, 4 x 4 alternated single-leg hurdle hops, 4 x 4 single-leg hurdle hops, and 4 x 4 40-cm drop jumps. Additionally, both groups performed 4 x 6RM half-squat exercises. Training volume was increased after 4 weeks. Pretesting and posttesting consisted of squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests, 10- and 30-m sprint speeds, an agility test, a half-squat 1RM, and a clean-and-jerk 1RM (only for WL). The WL program significantly increased the 10-m sprint speed (p < 0.05). Both groups, WL and VJ, increased CMJ (p < 0.05), but groups using the WL program increased more than those using the VJ program. On the other hand, the group using the VJ program increased its 1RM half-squat strength more than the WL group (47.8 and 43.7%, respectively). Only the WL group improved in the SJ (9.5%). There were no significant changes in the control group. In conclusion, Olympic WL exercises seemed to produce broader performance improvements than VJ exercises in physically active subjects.

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Here is an article that says injury is more frequent with free weights:

Mazur LJ, Yetman RJ, Risser WL. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods. Sports Med. 1993 Jul;16(1):57-63.

ANSTRACT: The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

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Hoffman JR, Cooper J, Wendell M, Kang J. Comparison of Olympic vs. traditional power lifting training programs in football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Feb;18(1):129-35.

ABSTRACT: Twenty members of an National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate football team were assigned to either an Olympic lifting (OL) group or power lifting (PL) group. Each group was matched by position and trained 4-days.wk(-1) for 15 weeks. Testing consisted of field tests to evaluate strength (1RM squat and bench press), 40-yard sprint, agility, vertical jump height (VJ), and vertical jump power (VJP). No significant pre- to posttraining differences were observed in 1RM bench press, 40-yard sprint, agility, VJ or in VJP in either group. Significant improvements were seen in 1RM squat in both the OL and PL groups. After log10-transformation, OL were observed to have a significantly greater improvement in Delta VJ than PL. Despite an 18% greater improvement in 1RM squat (p > 0.05), and a twofold greater improvement (p > 0.05) in 40-yard sprint time by OL, no further significant group differences were seen. Results suggest that OL can provide a significant advantage over PL in vertical jump performance changes.


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Old 10-05-2005, 02:19 PM   #10
Jeremy Jones
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wow that was a lot of good reading.



I can't believe they tested football refs, and that after a year of HIIT they were on par with the athletes! (although I still don't know what a "Yo-Yo" test is).
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